RESISTENZA AGLI ANTIBIOTICI di Nicola Migliorini

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E’ già da qualche tempo che il settore della medicina mette in guardia sulla questione antibiotici. In particolar modo in alcune nazioni sarebbe aumentata fra la popolazione una certa resistenza da parte delle malattie agli antibiotici. Questa pericolosa tendenza sarebbe anche dovuta al discutibile metodo di prescrivere con molta facilità cure antibiotiche, sistema che nel passato a quanto sembra fu molto in uso e quindi avrebbe indirettamente permesso lo sviluppo in alcune famiglie di batteri di assumere una certa resistenza agli antibiotici  tradizionali, una sorta di “refrattarietà” da parte di certi batteri responsabili di determinate malattie. E’ un dato davvero allarmante per il fatto che se ad un certo punto le cure antibiotiche non dovessero più rispondere come dovrebbe essere potremmo trovarci di fronte anche a decessi per malattie che un tempo con le cure antibiotiche tradizionali sarebbero state tranquillamente curate. E’ necessario capire che viviamo in un ambiente in continua modificazione, in una lotta perenne per la sopravvivenza, (anche se dato il nostro stile di vita non ce ne rendiamo più conto) pertanto anche il nostro corpo, i batteri ed i microorganismi partecipano instancabilmente a questa lotta  combattendo continuamente, modificandosi, divenendo per natura resistenti a determinate sostanze quindi per essere sconfitti necessiterebbero di altre nuove sostanze, il fatto è che la ricerca non è così rapida quindi rischieremmo, se la resistenza agli antibiotici si amplificasse e si allargasse a macchia d’olio nel mondo, di non avere più armi sufficientemente potenti per difenderci dalle malattie, non solamente da quelle più gravi ma anche da quelle più semplici, considerate oggi meno pericolose. Parlando della nostra nazione scopriamo che purtroppo ci spetta il triste primato fra i paesi dell’ Unione Europea come nazione avente il numero maggiore ogni anno di decessi per antibiotico resistenza, in pratica i batteri che causano le malattie sarebbero divenuti resistenti agli antibiotici tradizionali portando l’Italia ad un numero di oltre 10 mila decessi l’anno per questa specifica causa. Questo è il quadro delineato dall’ISS in occasione della  Settimana mondiale per l’uso consapevole degli antibiotici. Una buona notizia però l’ISS la mette in luce, nonostante il copioso numero di decessi per resistenza agli antibiotici l’Istituto Superiore della Sanità registra una tendenza in leggero calo anche se nel globale i valori restano sempre oltre la media europea.
La ricerca si sarebbe mossa portando alla luce anche i principali otto patogeni tenuti sotto stretto controllo per via della resistenza agli antibiotici, e sembra che si tratti di queste specifiche famiglie: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter species. Comunque sia nonostante il triste primato dell’Italia in questo delicato settore la medicina si starebbe muovendo e starebbe cercando di risolvere il problema ed in effetti come precedentemente accennato si parla di una lieve normalizzazione della tendenza anche se a mio modesto parere gli sforzi per riportare il trend come alle origini dovranno essere davvero tanti. Un’abitudine quindi che dovremo perdere è quella di assumere antibiotici per ogni malattia di lieve entità, sarebbe auspicabile cercare di fare in modo che il nostro sistema immunitario cercasse di reagire e magari riportarci in salute senza l’utilizzo di antibiotici, limitando quindi l’utilizzo di questi farmaci per patologie gravi o nel caso che le reazioni del sistema immunitario non riuscissero a proteggerci aggravando la situazione. Purtroppo come precedentemente accennato c’è stato un periodo nel passato che avrebbe visto troppa facilità nella prescrizione di antibiotici, portando a quello che è il presente, ovvero ad una certa resistenza di alcuni ceppi di batteri quindi, l’antibiotico, possiamo definirlo come quel farmaco che dovrebbe essere utilizzato in caso di gravità delle situazioni per poter riportare tutto alla normalità. Se un domani l’ antibiotico resistenza dovesse essere lasciata libera di allargarsi e raggiungere anche altre famiglie batteriche sarebbe molto grave dato che potrebbe portare a lungo andare alla “decimazione” della popolazione con la sopravvivenza dei soggetti più resistenti in natura riportando il mondo indietro nel tempo di qualche secolo, nel periodo più cupo per la medicina in cui gli antibiotici erano praticamente sconosciuti ed anche le malattie oggi considerate più semplici avrebbero potuto portare a complicazioni gravi se non addirittura al decesso del paziente.

Nicola Migliorini
Author: Nicola Migliorini

Nicola Migliorini è Direttore Responsabile del media www.mondooggi.com è un giornalista generalista con incarico a 360 gradi.

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