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Anche la Russia di Putin come pure altre grandi potenze mondiali sarebbe corsa ai ripari per quanto concerne il Covid-19. Debbo dire in verità che a mia modesta opinione la ricerca russa ultimamente sia davvero valida. In questo caso anche la patria di Putin avrebbe prodotto un vaccino: Sputnik V, un farmaco magari meno pubblicizzato dei vaccini occidentali come quello prodotto da Pfizer o da Moderna, ma non per questo meno valido dei vaccini occidentali, i quali avrebbero optato per una nuovissima tecnologia di produzione in merito alla realizzazione del proprio siero. Differentemente dai farmaci occidentali il vaccino russo sfrutterebbe una tecnologia denominata a “vettore virale”. Lo Sputnik V differirebbe per alcuni particolari dagli altri vaccini oggi in commercio in quanto sfrutterebbe due “scatole” differenti. Per cercare di capire la dinamica possiamo dire che nella prima iniezione viene utilizzato il virus Ad26 mentre Ad25 nella seconda. Il richiamo che viene consigliato dopo 21 giorni dalla prima iniezione compirà l’iter vaccinale. Anche nel caso di Sputnik V l’obbiettivo sarebbe quello di poter permettere nel soggetto vaccinato la produzione del sistema immunitario ovvero gli anticorpi diretti a contrasto della proteina Spike responsabile del Sars-Cov-2. Quello che differenzia la tipologia di produzione del vaccino russo è proprio questo: il metodo di produzione. In questo caso Sputnik V

https://www.mondooggi.com/?p=13940&preview=true

avrebbe la caratteristica di possedere questa precisa particolarità, una caratteristica molto simile alla produzione vaccinale tradizionale, ovvero il fatto di essere composto in parte dal virus interessato (in questo caso il Sars-Cov-2) ma reso innocuo. Così facendo il virus neutralizzato fungerebbe da “scatola” contenente una piccolissima porzione di DNA che avrebbe lo scopo di produrre gli anticorpi a contrasto della proteina Spike. Diciamo che il vaccino di Putin possieda delle similitudini con il siero della Astra Zeneca e della Johnson & Johnson. La particolarità di questo farmaco è il fatto che sia composto dalla combinazione di due vaccini. Per quanto riguarda il vaccino Moderna ma anche l’occidentale Pfizer sarebbero stati prodotti con una nuovissima tecnologia farmaceutica. Questi innovativi vaccini provenienti dalla tecnologia moderna occidentale agirebbero nell’organismo umano introducendo del materiale genetico, l’ mRNA. Il materiale genetico che comporrebbe il vaccino Pfizer fungerebbe da vettore dato che conterrebbe le “istruzioni” per la produzione della proteina Spike tipica del Covid,  così facendo dovrebbe permettere al vaccinato di contrastare il virus. Questo tipo di vaccini pertanto sarebbero stati realizzati con una tecnologia mai utilizzata prima ma non conterrebbero il virus neutralizzato come invece quello dell’ Astra Zeneca e lo Sputnik V. Arrivati a questo punto dopo una breve spiegazione cercheremo di capire l’efficacia del vaccino di Putin. Stando ai dati pubblicati su The Lancet, il primo test di un certo livello sull’efficacia di Sputnik V, avrebbe visto il coinvolgimento di 20 mila persone cui 16 mila sarebbero stati vaccinati con il vaccino russo mentre 5 mila con un innocuo placebo. L’analisi per la verifica dell’efficacia, prestando attenzione a coloro che avessero contratto i sintomi della patologia, avrebbe portato alla luce una buona efficacia pari al 91% dei casi. Un risultato davvero buono anche se ad onor del vero, alcuni punti del test dovrebbero essere chiariti e potrebbero

Foto di x3 da Pixabay

far calare l’efficacia anche se di poco dalla percentuale sopradescritta. Comunque lo si voglia vedere Sputnik V sarebbe fra i vaccini oggi testati ed approvati e si attesterebbe come un ottimo farmaco per il contrasto del virus Covid-19. Proprio per il fatto di aver optato per la tecnologia tipica di Sputnik V (ovvero il sistema a due vettori differenti) sarebbero allo studio altri clinical trials, aventi lo scopo di scoprire se la combinazione di adenovirus con l’aggiunta di mRNA, adenovirus differenti fra prima dose e richiamo, sia in grado di portare ad un aumento dell’efficacia del vaccino. Fatto sta che il vaccino russo starebbe iniziando a prendere piede e questo sarebbe dovuto anche al “fattore Pfizer” ovvero la mancanza di dosi ed i ritardi di consegna in parecchi stati europei. La piccola Repubblica di San Marino che proprio per il fatto di essere un piccolo stato sarebbe assolutamente più gestibile e meno caotico della UE ma soprattutto della nazione ospitante, l’Italia, avrebbe deciso di attivarsi tramite i propri canali diplomatici per poter acquistare le dosi di Sputnik V necessarie per  vaccinare una buona parte della popolazione sanmarinese. In questo caso il piccolo stato avrebbe optato proprio per il farmaco russo. Non solamente San Marino lo avrebbe adottato ma anche paesi appartenenti all’ ex blocco Soviet avrebbero propeso per Sputnik coma la Serbia e l’Ungheria, il Montenegro e la Bosnia. Nel mondo i paesi che avrebbero optato per il vaccino di Putin ad oggi sarebbero già 30. Extra Ue ci sarebbero la Bielorussia, l’Algeria, gli Emirati Arabi, il Messico, il Pakistan, il Kazakistan, la Tunisia ed il Nicaragua. Comunque sia l’impatto di Sputnik V sarebbe stato davvero importante, tanto cha altre nazioni oltre a quelle menzionate starebbero oggi pensando di adottarlo per vaccinare i propri cittadini. San Marino quindi nei prossimi giorni potrebbe iniziare a ricevere le prime dosi del farmaco (arrivate circa 20 giorni dopo gli accordi con la Russia) approvato mediante una procedura di autorizzazione all’uso di emergenza. Alla prima dose ne seguirà una seconda, per il richiamo che avverrà il

Foto di Schwoaze da Pixabay

mese successivo, necessario per un’ efficacia discreta. Ciò che invece lascerebbe l’amaro in bocca è il fatto che l’Italia, lo stato ospitante la Repubblica di San Marino, sia in preda al caos politico più totale e nonostante la diffusione del vaccino russo, non ne abbia ancora autorizzato la distribuzione, anche se a dire il vero dalla comunità scientifica arriverebbero segnali positivi che dovrebbero essere considerati in modo particolare, dato il ritardo delle consegne dei vaccini occidentali concorrenti. Stando a quanto affermato dall’ Istituto Spallanzani di Roma (dice Il Giornale) il vaccino di Putin offrirebbe un’efficacia nella protezione pari al 90% che arriverebbe nientemeno che al 100% nelle forme più gravi della malattia. Un’efficacia quindi molto significativa, direi massima, che sarebbe in grado di proiettare Sputnik V nell’olimpo dei migliori vaccini al mondo in piena concorrenzialità con i vaccini Moderna e Pfizer-BioNtech, ovvero i due farmaci oggi considerati maggiormente efficaci in Europa. A quanto pare Sputnik V si attesterebbe migliore anche di quello proposto da Astra Zeneca. Per quale motivo quindi il vaccino non sarebbe ancora stato autorizzato il Italia? Per il fatto che i protocolli di studio in dettaglio (ma solo sintesi) non sarebbero stati condivisi, ma anche il fatto che la dimostrazione dell’ efficacia di Sputnik V proverrebbe da una singola sperimentazione portata a termine a Mosca.

Foto di Schwoaze da Pixabay

Comunque sia ripeto: la tecnica di Sputnik V si baserebbe sugli adenovirus come per i vaccini tradizionali antiinfluenzali. Questo sistema offrirebbe fra l’altro un notevole vantaggio ovvero una maggiore stabilità del farmaco dato che sarebbe in grado di mantenersi fra i 2 e gli 8 gradi. In pratica la conservazione di Sputnik V sarebbe molto semplice, al pari di un vaccino anti influenzale, quindi sarebbe possibile conservarlo al fresco anche in un normalissimo frigorifero. Unico scoglio il prezzo. In genere i vaccini si aggirano intorno ai 9 Euro dell’ europeo Pfizer arrivando agli 11 Euro dello Sputnik V. In fatto di salute della popolazione di uno stato, ragionando, il risparmio vale la candela?

Maira Alcantara
Author: Maira Alcantara

free lance generalista, incaricata anche per articoli speciali relativi a settore sport ed automobilismo storico e moderno

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